1. Money is a word common to all the basic functions of the bank.
(1)money n. pl. mon.eys; or monies: ①a commodity, such as gold, or an officially issued coin or paper note that is legally established as an exchangeable equivalent of all other commodities, such as goods and services, and is used as a measure of their comparative values on the market. 钱，货币，纸币一种商品，如金子或官方发行的铸币或纸币，把这种货币或纸币定为可与其他一切商品、如货物和服务的等价交换物，并用作市场交换价值的尺度。②The official currency, coins, and negotiable paper notes issued by a government. 通货由政府发行的官方货币、铸币和可转让纸币
(2)function n. ①the action for which one is particularly fitted or employed. 作用，功能（特别适合某人或某人所从事的行为）②assigned duty or activity. 职务，职责分派的职责或指定的活动
(3)common to all the basic functions of the bank: 此句是由形容词common to(对…共同，为…所共用) 引导的形容词短语，这类短语在修饰名词时通常后置。
2. Money can be defined as anything which passes freely from hand to hand and is generally acceptable in the settlement of a debt.
(1)define v.tr. to state the precise meaning of (a word or sense of a word, for example).给…下定义给（例如，单词或词义）下精确的定义
(2)which passes freely…and is generally acceptable…为定语从句。
From hand to hand: 传递；转手
(3)in the settlement of a debt: 在清算债务时
settlement: ①transfer of property to provide for the future needs of a person. 转让（转让财产以提供某人未来所需）②a payment of money清算，结账
3. Although most countries now use a system of bank notes and coins, many different commodities have been used as money by people in various parts of the wold and various times in history.
(1)a system of bank notes and coins: 一种钞票和硬币的货币体系
system: n.①a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. 系统（组成一个复杂的整体的一组互相作用、互相联系或互相依存的元素）②a social, economic, or political organizational form.制度社会、经济或政治组织形式
note: n.①A piece of paper currency. 纸币一纸现金 ②a certificate issued by a government or a bank and sometimes negotiable as money. 票据政府或银行确保的证据，有时可用作钱
coin: n.①a small piece of metal, usually flat and circular, authorized by a government for use as money. 硬币一小块金属，常为平圆形，由政府批准用作通货 ②metal money considered as a whole. 金属钱币总称
辩异：currency: n. pl. cur.ren.cies;abbr:cur. ①money in any form when in actual use as a medium of exchange, especially circulating paper money. 货币任一形式的钱币，在实际使用时作为交换媒介，尤指流通纸币 ②transmission from person to person as a medium of exchange; circulation: 流通作为交换媒介从一人传送到另一人；流通
(2)commodity: pl.com.mod.i.ties;①something useful that can be turned to commercial or other advantage.日用品；商品能转成商业或其他利益的有用的东西 ②an article of trade or commerce, especially an agricultural or mining product, that can be transported. 用品一种贸易或商业物品。尤指农业或矿产品，能够运输
(3)various times in history: 不同历史(时期)阶段
4. Money by itself gives us no benefit —— only by spending it can we obtain the thing we want.
货币本身不能给我们带来任何好处 - 惟有将货币投入使用，我们才能获得所需的物品。
(1)by itself: 独自地，单独地
(2) —— only by spending it can we obtain the thing we want.这是由only引出的倒装句，起强调语气的作用，其正常语序为：—— we can obtain the thing (that) we want only by spending it.
5. Without some form of money in circulation, the range of goods and services available to us would be considerably reduced and business transactions would be difficult to carry on.
(1)本句运用了与现在事实相反的虚拟语气，"without some form of money in circulation"是介词短语，起假设条件从句的作用，相当于："if there were not some form money in circulation"。
(2)"to carry on"是主动形式表示被动意思。在某些结构中，不定式虽然表示被动的意思，用的却是主动形式。如：
He has no one to take care of.
We still have many difficulties to overcome.