3. B. weakened
4. D. accepted
5. C. bound
6. B. subject
7. D. applies
8. B. raise
9. A. line
10. B. as
11. A. so
12. C. upset
13. C. cultivate
14. D. tied
15. A. concepts
16. C. shapes
17. A. dismissed
18. C. address
19. D. accountable
20. D. as a result
21. D a cause of undesirable behaviors
22. B learn from advertisers’experience
23. A adequately probe social and biological factors
24. C occurs without our realizing it
26. C dishonoring.
27. A obtain protection from Vermont regulators.
28. A managerial practices.
29. B the mature of states’ patchwork regulations.
30. B the authority of the NRC will be defied.
31. A uncertainty and complexity.
32. A strict inspection.
33. B has been examined by the scientific community.
34. D scientific work calls for a critical mind.
35. D Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science.
36. C unions have enlarged their public-sector membership.
37. D Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.
38. B indirectly augmented.
39. C may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.
40. A disapproval.
41. C Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day.
42. D This is because the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading - between passive consumption and active creation - whose outcome will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine.
43. A Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity.
44. F One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading.
45. G The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.
47. 在这一点上，达尔文学说似乎给人们提供了准则， 如果所有人种同宗同源，那么 “文化多样性也能追溯到更为单一的源头”的假定也就不无道理了。
On behalf of the Students’ Union, I am writing to extend my warm welcome to all the international students that are coming to our university. I firmly believe that your entering our university will bring us new ideas from different cultures and promote communication.
Also, we have some suggestions before you come to our university. As you all know, we have a great much free time in college and the teachers don’t oversee us strictly. Therefore, it is recommended that you can arrange your time properly and avoid being indulged in computer games, etc. Moreover, in order to make yourselves quickly adjusted to our campus life, it would be of great help if you can learn Chinese as well as you can. Last but not the least, it is necessary to take part in some activities so that you can improve your communication abilities and expand horizon.
We are looking forward to seeing you soon and wish everything goes well.
As is shown in the picture above, two men react in completely opposite ways when faced with the same event: A bottle fell off on the ground, and the wine inside spilt out. One is smiling, feeling glad that he still has the rest half of the wine while the other is sighing in great desperation saying that “everything screwed up!”
The cartoon tells us that being optimistic and being pessimistic are two different attitudes towards life. Faced with a challenge, a pessimistic person may feel gloomy and distressed. He considers himself powerless, and complains about it all day long, refusing even to have a try before giving it up in the end. An optimistic person, however, may adopt an entirely different approach. He may not regard the challenge as something that bad; instead, he takes it as an excellent opportunity to display his abilities and talent. As an old saying goes, “The way you perceive the world will determine your way to cope with it.”
In my point of view, though it is natural that we encounter challenges of one kind or another in our life, we should be optimistic whenever we are confronted with challenges. If we are pessimistic, we are destined to fail, ending up accomplishing nothing. But if we approach the challenges in an optimistic way, we may go from victory to victory.