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Noah Webster-Blue-Backed Speller books

作者:stephen    文章来源:互联网    点击数:    更新时间:2010-5-18 【我来说两句

Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, word enthusiast, and editor. He has been called the “Father of American Scholarship and Education.” His “Blue-Backed Speller” books were used to teach spelling and reading to five generations of American children. In the United States, his name has become synonymous with dictionaries, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language.

Noah Webster was born on October 16, 1758, in the West Division of Hartford, Connecticut, to a family who had lived in Connecticut since colonial days. His father, Noah, Sr. (1722–1813), was a farmer and a sower. His father was a descendant of Connecticut Governor John Webster; his mother, Mercy (born Steele; d. 1794), was a descendant of Governor William Bradford of Plymouth Colony. Noah had two brothers, Abram (1751–1831) and Charles (b. 1762).

At the age of 16, Noah began attending Yale College. His four years at Yale overlapped the American Revolutionary War, and, because of food shortages, many of his college classes were held in Glastonbury, Connecticut. During the American Revolution, he served in the Connecticut Militia.

Having graduated from Yale in 1778, Webster wanted to continue his education in order to earn his law degree. He taught school in Glastonbury, Hartford, and West Hartford in order to pay for his education. He set up many small schools that didn't thrive, but he was a good teacher because instead of whacking his students to get them to learn, like most teachers did, he rewarded them. He earned his law degree in 1781, but did not practice law until 1789. Once he started he found the law was not to his liking.

Webster married Rebecca Greenleaf (1766–1847) on October 26, 1789, in New Haven, Connecticut. They had eight children:

Emily Schotten (1790–1861), who married William W. Ellsworth, named by Webster as an executor of his will. Emily, their daughter, married Rev. Abner Jackson, who became president of both Hartford's Trinity College and Hobart College in New York State.[3]
Frances Julianna (1793–1869)
Harriet (1797–1844)
Mary (1799–1819)
William Greenleaf (1801–1869)
Eliza (1803–1888)
Henry (1806–1807)
Louisa (b. 1808)
Webster liked to carry raisins and candies in his pocket for his children to enjoy.

Webster married well and had joined the elite in Hartford but did not have much money. In 1793, Alexander Hamilton lent him $1500 to move to New York City to edit a Federalist newspaper. In December, he founded New York's first daily newspaper, American Minerva (later known as The Commercial Advertiser), and edited it for four years.

For decades, he was one of the most prolific authors in the new nation, publishing textbooks, political essays, a report on infectious diseases, and newspaper articles for his Federalist party. He wrote so much that a modern bibliography of his published works required 655 pages.

The Websters moved back to New Haven in 1798. He then served in the Connecticut House of Representatives in 1800 and 1802-1807. He is buried in the Grove Street Cemetery.

Politician Daniel Webster was Noah Webster’s cousin. As a senator, Daniel sponsored Noah’s proposed copyright bill.[4] The first major statutory revision of U.S. copyright law, the 1831 Act was a result of intensive lobbying by Noah Webster and his agents in Congress.



  当时的通常做法,是让所有这样的学生(即那些程度够高,能清楚发出一个音节以上的词的人)站在一起,形成一个班级,然后齐声朗读拼写表上的一两排字。教师给一个开始的信号,大家就一起来读,一个字母一个字母地读,单独地发出每个音节的音,再加上前面的音节,直到念完整个字,如a dad,m imi,admi,r ara,admira,t i o nshun,admiration。这样一种形式的读法极为刺激,而且依本人愚见,也极为有用,因为它要求审慎而又清晰地发音并如此去教学生……





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