early settlers——Roman invations——Anglo-Saxons——the Viking and Danish Invations——the Norman Conquest——
William’s Rule——the Great Charter——the Hundred Year’s War——the English Reformation——the English
Renaissance——the Civil War——the Glorius Revolution——the Industrial Revolution——in the two World Wars
the war of Independence——the War of 1812——territorial expansion and Westward Movement——
the Civil War——in the two World Wars——the Cold War——the Berlin Blockade——the Civil Rights
Movement in the 1950s——the Vietname War
政体Country Party system Houses
Britain The conservative Party, The House of Commons
The Labour Party The House of Lorbs
The U.S. The Democrats, The Senate,
The Republic The House of Representatives
Ireland Fianna Fail, The Senate,
Fine Gael The House of Representatives
Australia The Labour Party, The Senate,
the Liberal and National Party The House of Representatives
New Zealand The National Party，
The Labour Party The House of Representatives
Canada The Liberal Party, The Senate,
the Progressive Conservative Party The House of Representatives
自然资源英国:Compare with many other countries,Britain has comsiderable reserves of coal.
Today British coal mining is called a "sick" industry.
Natural gas and oil was discovered in 1965 and oil in 1970 under the North Sea.
Britain was the first nation to build a large iron and steel industry.Rich deposits of
iron ore were found in central England.
As with the coal industry,Britain's steel industry is declining.
美国:Fertile soil is one of the most important natural resouces in the United States.
America's forest resources are among the world's largest.
Another natural resource that contributes to the welfare of the country is water.
America is the leaders in production of Coal,iron ore,cpper,oil,sulfur,lead and zine.
But short for tin,manganese,and nikel
爱尔兰:Ireland is now the largest producer of lead and zinc concentrates in Europe.
While Ireland lacks sizeable oil deposits,it has a valuable energy source in the peat,or turt,
bogs that cover extensive areas of the country.
加拿大:Water is one of the most important natural resources in Canada.
Almost half of the land area of Canada is covered by forests. Canada ranks third,in the production
of lumber and other forest products in the world.The largest producer of newsprint in the world.
Canada is a primary world producer of nickle,zine and asbestoes,and comes second in potash,third in
gold and fourth in copper.
Canada is a major world supplier of uranium.
Experts believe that the cold fields of Canada may be among the largest in the world.
A great deposit of petroleum was discovered south of Edmonton in Alberta. About two thurds of
Canada's petroleum and about four fifths of its natural gas come from Alberta.
澳大利亚:Australia is one of the world's biggest producers of minerals and metals.
It has major deposits of bauxite,mineral sands,diamonds,and black and brown coal,and large
reserves of ores containing gold,lead,zinc,iron,copper,nikel,manganese and uranium. It is the
world largest exporter of coal,and a major exporter of uranium.
新西兰:There is an increasingly large share of energy comes from local resources:natural gas,
crude oil,hydroelectricity and geothermal steam. Coal is of growing importance.Solar
energy,vegetable oils and ethylalcohol from fermentation make small contributions.
农业英国:The Britain were pioneers in modern agriculture and were among the first to bring science
and machinery to farming.The new farming has been called "agribusiness".There are mainly six farming types in Britain.They are arable farning,dairy fariming,stock farming,mixed farming,hill farming and market gardening.
Because of the cool climate,apples,pears and plums grwo very well in Britain.
The North Sea has very good fishing grounds.
美国:Yet the United States grows nearly one fourth of the world's grain and supplies a half of all the
exports of grain in the world.
It ranks first,second,or third in the production and export of corn, wheat, rice, soybeans, oranges,
meat,milk, apples,oats,cotton,tobaoo, peanuts,and edible vegetable oil.(p289-291)
爱尔兰:Agriculture generates anestimated 11% of the Ireland GNP,employs 17% of the labour force and
produces 25% of total exports.
The most signigicant recent development in Irish agriculture has been membership in the
加拿大:The land used for agriculture makes up only 7% in Canada. Canada farms specialize in
producing wheat,food crops for animals dairy products,and fruit.Fishing and mining are quite important.
The Canada Prairie is the centre of a rich wheat belt.
Eastern Canada is noted for a variety of farm products.
Dairying is in the lowlands of Quebec and Ontario.
Fruits are grown in Western Nova Scotia.
澳大利亚:Today,agriculture is the nation's largest and most diverse industry.Australia is one
of the world's leading producers of food and natural fibres.Australia is the world's largest
exporter of wool,the second largest exporter of meat,the third largest exporter of wheat and
a major international supplier of sugar,dairy products,fruits,cotton and rice.
Australia's agriculture importance has declined in recent years.
新西兰:Vineyards produce international award-winning red and white wines.
制造业,工业英国:The textile is one of Britain's oldest.Textiles were on of the country's most vauluable exports.
Britain became a world leader in shipbuilding during the middle of the 19th century.The two main
centres for shipbuilding were on the River Tyne near Newcastle,England and on the Clyde near
Glasgow in Scotland.
The Britain motor industry now dominated by four firms(Ford,the Rover Group,GM-Vauxhall,and Peugeot)
There are three areas in Britain which have seen some high-tech industrial growth. Scotland has
Europe's largest collection of foreign-owned chip factories.Over 90% of the companies are from
the U.S.A.,Japan,the Netherlands and germany.
美国:The untied States ranks first,second,third or fourth in the world in the production of
crude steel,passenger cars,commercial vehicles,chemicals,radio sets,television sets,and other manufacturing goods.Manufacturing accounts for about one quarter of the GDP,about one quarter of the national income,and over one fifth of the work force.
The industrial regions are the Midwest(the nations's leading centre of heavy industry) round the
Great Lakes,the Middle Atlantic states,the South,and the Pacific Coast.
爱尔兰:Since the 1961s,manufactuing has become the mainstay of the Irish economy.
Of industrial employment,66% are employed in manufacting.
加拿大:Manufacturing is the mst important economic activity in Canada.Food processing is the
leading industry. The manufacture of transportation equipment ranks second. The production of
paper and paper related
products ranks third. metal products are also important.
澳大利亚:The mining industry in Australia has faced new problems in recent years.
Australia's service sector is the fastest-growing sector of industry.It has been growing in
importance in recent years.
新西兰:There are two steel comanies:New Zealand Steel which uses iron sands from the west
coast of North Island,and Pacific Steel which reuses scrap iron.New Zealand is a world
leader in the CNA(compressed natural gas) industry.Garments,fabrics and carpets are exported.
The fishing industry has expanded greatly and is now the 4th largest export earner.