11. as 引导的行为方式状语从句.
Please do exactly as your doctor says.
You must do the exercises just as I show you
As it is = as things are照现在的情形看
He promised to study hard, but as it is , he does no better than before.
Leave the house as it is. I’d like to buy it as it is.
12. as if ( as though ) 好像
He looked at me as if I were mad.
He was in great trouble, but he acted if / though nothing had happened.
Although they just met for the first time, they talked as if they had been friends for many years.
There many black clouds in the sky. It looks as if it is going to rain.
13. though, although, as “虽然”, 引导让步状语从句.
Although位于句首; though 位于句首或句中;as位于句中= though = that, 它的词序是把句中强调的形容词,副词,动词或名词放在连词前. 注意观察下列句式变化:
Although / Though I’m young, I already know what career I want to follow.
= Young as / though / that I am, I already know what career I want to follow.
Although I respect him very much, I can not agree with his idea.
= Much as / that / though I respect him, I can not agree with his idea.
Although / though he is a child, he knows a lot of Chinese characters.
= Child as / though / that he is , he knows a lot of Chinese characters.
Although he tried, he couldn’t solve the problem.
= Try as he might, he couldn’t solve the problem.
Although it is raining, I am going out for a walk.
= Raining as it is, I am going out for a walk.
14. even if = even though 即使…也…; 即便…也…
Even if / though I have to sell my house, I’ll keep my business going.
She won’t attend such parties even though/ if she is invited.
You are not stupid. Even though/ if you were slow in study, you shouldn’t give up studies.
The boy was badly injured and died at last. Even if he had been attended without delay,
he couldn’t have been saved.
15. whether… or…不管…还是…
Whether the weather is good or bad, they will set off as they planned.
Whether he drives or takes the train, he will be here on time.
Any person, whether young or old, has his worth, independent of achievements, bank accounts or looks.
16. 疑问词+ ever
Whatever ,whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, whoever均引导让步状语从句,相当于no matter 与what, who, which, when, where, how连用.
Whatever ( = No matter what ) may happen, we shall not lose hope.
Whoever / No matter who comes, he will be welcome.
Whenever / No matter when it happened, it was certainly not yesterday.
Wherever / No matter where he went, he made friends with people.
17. unless 除非,如果不 (= if…not)
I shall go tomorrow unless it rains.
------Shall Tom go and play football?
------Not unless he has finished his homework.
Unless the sun were to rise in the west, I wouldn’t break my word.
I won’t attend his birthday party unless invited (= unless I am invited)
18. as/so long as 只要
So /as long as you keep on trying, you will surely succeed.
So/ as long as you stick to your plans for your study, you are sure to make great progress.
-----What are you going to do this afternoon?
-----I will probably go for a walk later on so long as it stays fine.
19. supposing/ suppose (that)假定; 假如
Suppose/ supposing (that) I don’t have a day off, what shall we do?
Suppose x equals to y, then you can work out the result.
Providing/ provided (that) = on condition that 假如, 在…条件下
I’ll lend you the money on condition that you can return it in three months.
I’ll go providing/ provided that my expenses are paid.
20. given (that)… = take ….into consideration 鉴于, 考虑到
Given the government’s record on unemployment, their chances of winning the election look poor.
Given their interest in children/ given that she is interested in children, I am sure teaching is the right career for her.
Granted that it’s a splendid car, but have you seen what it costs?
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